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Do you know what work schedule works best for your business? Considering the vast number of schedule types, each with pros and cons, it's a challenging question.
Finding the correct employee scheduling format is critical to your business' success and your employees' happiness. Whether you operate using a rotating or shift schedule, good schedules create a healthy work-life balance for each employee — regardless of their full-time or part-time status.
Efficient work schedules also allow employers to designate tasks for experienced and skilled employees who can tackle complex projects more effectively. Employees should know their schedule weeks in advance so there is no communication breakdown on the number of hours an employee puts in.
A work schedule dictates the times and days of the week an employee is expected to work. Work schedules consider the number of hours each employee is scheduled for to ensure the business remains adequately staffed while avoiding overworking one individual.
Schedules may reset weekly, monthly, or by a different time — just as long as these schedules are posted or made accessible to employees in advance.
Unfortunately, a set schedule isn't possible in all industries. Work schedules may vary depending on the business and an employee's position.
You must make work schedule expectations clear before offering a role to prospective employees. Clear expectations are especially important for companies that use a flexible schedule or other less-popular work scheduling processes.
The most famous work schedule for non-exempt employees is the Monday through Friday, nine-to-five schedule. This schedule delivers a standard 40-hour workweek for employees to accomplish tasks predictably. Employees who work this schedule are typically considered full-time.
That said, there are various definitions of the term "full-time."
According to the IRS, any employee who works 30 or more hours per week is considered full-time. Meanwhile, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) only designates the 'full-time' status to those who work at least 35 hours per week.
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) expects full-time employees working overtime to receive at least one and a half times their regular hourly rate over 40 hours a week. Other perks and benefits of full-time work may include retirement benefits and health insurance — but only as employers see fit.
Every business has unique needs, and the nine-to-five schedule doesn't work for everyone. Businesses that need 24-hour staffing or have other priorities to address often use shifts to maximize output.
In no particular order, here are the fourteen most popular work schedules:
The Dupont shift schedule is a popular choice for police stations, health care facilities, and other establishments that run 24/7. In this schedule, you have four different teams working two 12-hour shifts. Day and night shifts are set on a four-week rotation cycle. Over four weeks, employees on a Dupont schedule will work as follows:
Three days off
One day off
Three days off
Seven days off
This work schedule can see employees working over the standard 40 hours some weeks. However, the guarantee of seven days off after a cycle is something employees can look forward to.
Another popular option for industries that provide 24/7 staffing is the 2-2-3 schedule. This method utilizes a slow, 28-day rotation cycle where each employee works 12-hour shifts each day. A typical schedule involving four teams works as follows:
Two days shifts
Two days off
Three days shifts
Employees on a 2-2-3 schedule work for only 180 days a year, and they will never have more than three workdays consecutively. Plus, your employees also get 3-day weekends every other week.
Three-day weekend lovers rejoice! The 4-10 schedule is a way to provide 40 hours of work in a four-day workweek. As the name suggests, employees will work four 10-hour days and take Friday off.
10-hour days can be a bit grueling, but at least employees keep their full-time status by clocking 80 hours every two weeks. The extra day off is good for work-life balance and helps to offset any potential for burnout.
Like the name suggests, employees working a 9-80 schedule complete 80 hours of work in just nine days. This is one style of compressed schedules. Like the 4-10 schedule, this allows them an extra day off — but only every other week.
The goal of the 9-80 schedule is to keep employees working less than 10 hours a day. That said, some days are longer than others. Here’s how it breaks down:
Week 1: Employees will work a full five-day week. The first four days will be nine hours. That Friday, they’ll work an eight-hour day.
Week 2: Employees will work the same four nine-hour days and take Friday off.
Also known as flextime or flex schedules, this schedule variant is less rigid than a fixed schedule. The employer and employees work together to define the number of hours and days an employee works.
Employers can set the minimum number of work hours expected, but shifts may vary to fulfill business needs and provide a work-life balance.
A full-time work schedule means employees work between eight and 10 hours a day — about 40 to 50 hours weekly.
Considering their long hours, full-time employees usually collect various benefits from their place of business. These often include health insurance, sick days, and retirement options.
Most full-time schedules involve the same shift each day. Shifts can vary, but employees usually average around 34 to 40 hours weekly.
Non-exempt, full-time employees receive overtime pay when they work over 40 hours. While they often make more, salaried team members are exempt and ineligible for overtime.
Part-time employees work fewer hours than full-time employees and usually make less. That said, there’s more flexibility with part-time work. Some businesses offer part-time work over the weekends instead of during the typical workweek.
Unfortunately, there are some downsides to the part-time approach.
First, part-time employees won’t have the same access to retirement, health care, and other benefits as full-time employees. Secondly, the working hours may be inconsistent in some industries. For example, part-time work may only be available during the holiday season in retail.
The split shift is an alternate work schedule agreement that allows employees to break their day into multiple shifts.
For example, split-shift employees may come in from 7:00 AM to 11:00 AM and from 5:00 PM to 9:00 PM.
There is a substantial break between the shifts, but employees still cover their eight hours daily. When utilizing split shift schedules, you must be aware of state labor laws for your area, which may require a certain number of hours between shifts.
An excellent example of a split shift position is the school bus driver working a few hours in the morning to take kids to school and a few in the afternoon taking the kids home. You may also see working parents use split shifts to pick up their children from school.
If you run a 24/7 establishment, the rotating shift work schedule is an excellent option that cycles employees through the day, swing, and night shifts. This distribution between employees ensures no one works less desirable hours each shift.
An example of a rotating shift work schedule would be one where an employee:
Works a day shift one week
Works a swing shift the following week
Works a night shift the following week
On-call employees agree to work as the employer demands. Most on-call staff receive compensation beyond their work hours because employees don't have any guaranteed time off.
Employees rotate on-call responsibilities to ensure that one person is not always working. Employers use this employee schedule to prepare for staffing emergencies or non-predictable work scenarios. Physicians, for example, have one on-call day a month for emergencies.
Compressed schedules allow employees to reach their required full-time hours in only four days. Under a compressed schedule, employees typically work ten hours daily for four days. Although daily shifts are longer, the employee enjoys three days off every week.
An irregular shift schedule is just that: irregular. Under this work schedule type, employees' work hours and days off change weekly. Days and hours scheduled will likely vary based on business needs, seasonal workload, and employee obligations outside of work.
With the rise of asynchronous work, many companies are experimenting with flexible hours and irregular shifts.
Freelance work schedules are used for contract or freelance employees. These employees typically work with no schedule, working only until their projects are complete.
Businesses use season schedules when they require employees for only part of the year. For example, snow plow operators, lifeguards, or holiday entertainers.
In an overtime work schedule, employees work overtime hours that exceed their regular working hours. These overtime hours must be paid one and a half times their typical salary.
Every industry and organization works differently, but here are some key tips for setting employee work schedules that fit best with your team.
Assess your needs and expectations - The first step is to assess the needs of your business. Do you need 24/7 coverage? Can employees swap shifts when needed? How will you determine employee availability? Will you have an on-call schedule?
Set core hours - Determine what hours you will be open, and fill in the work schedule from there based on labor costs and employee availability.
Request employee feedback - Often, your team knows how they work best. Before setting fixed schedules, ask your team for their input on what work schedules are best for them.
Learn from your industry - Every industry uses different work schedules based on how their business is run. From food service to medical teams, you must create a work schedule that fits your employee preferences and business requirements.
Involve your team in the process - Ask your team for feedback before picking a work schedule to ensure buy-in. Feedback can help you find a work schedule that improves productivity while meeting your business needs.
Use employee scheduling software - Find a time tracking and employee scheduling software that will help you keep track of hours and work schedules once your new shift schedules are in place. Give your team access to an employee scheduling app and time tracking software to automate team management.
Set clear expectations - Your team should know what is expected of them before a new work schedule is introduced. Setting clear expectations helps meet goals and makes the scheduling process more manageable.
Create rules - Once you select an employee work schedule, team management needs to kick in. Ask yourself questions like, are employees allowed to trade shifts? Will you allow flexible work schedules? Does everyone need to take an hour’s lunch break? Determine these rules before creating a work schedule.
Creating and maintaining a consistent work schedule is critical to running a successful business – big or small.
This way, everyone on your team knows when they’re expected to work. The best work schedule offers your business several benefits, such as:
Reduced employee turnover - Employees know when they're expected to work and can plan their finances and personal lives accordingly.
Improved productivity - Employees reach more goals with a clear, structured timeframe for accomplishing tasks. Work schedules also make it easy to spot health issues and problems with employees turning up late.
Preserved work-life balance - An unpredictable work schedule often causes employees to work too much and neglect their personal lives. With better scheduling techniques, employees won’t have to think about work when they’re off the clock.
Guaranteed 24/7 staffing - Businesses that run around the clock can be confident that someone is always available to lend a helping hand. Without clear work schedules, this isn’t the case.
Effective payroll management - Work schedules are critical for handling payroll. Schedules also ensure you comply with FLSA record-keeping standards.
Reduced stress - Keeping a set work schedule helps reduce stress for managers and employees. Work schedules are also an effective way to recognize and reference past shift patterns to prepare for holidays and events in advance.
For many employers, a standard nine-to-five work schedule works just fine. For others, a more flexible work schedule gets the job done. Whether your team operates on a flexible work schedule or a fixed work schedule, you need to set clear expectations and ensure you have employee buy-in.
Your business must select the best fit based on industry and business needs. If your line of work allows, consider the positive effects of flexible scheduling. It could be the key factor to better work-life balance and retention.
No matter which work schedule your team uses, time tracking and employee scheduling software are critical for maintaining and automating employee’s work schedules.
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